Holywood loves sensation. And the werewolf beliefs of the late Middle Ages are sensational. That is why many horror films have been made in which the werewolf plays an unsavory role. With this the film producers dishonor the faith of the Germanic people. Werewolves are actually shamans, medicine people, priests of Óðinn.
According to superstition, a werewolf is a human who changes into a wolf at full moon. You would become a werewolf if you were bitten by another werewolf. In this superstition, an ancient religion is connected with primitive science. What is the truth?
In the late Middle Ages, wolves contracted rabies. Healthy wolves avoid humans. Only in extremely severe winters does it sometimes happen that a pack of starving wolves attacks a human. Normally that doesn't happen. But when wolves get rabid, they become extremely aggressive. They bite at anything that comes near them. And if you are bitten by a rabid wolf, you will become rabid yourself. Over time, your body begins to cramp and jerk. You can no longer swallow and you refuse to drink, even if you are very thirsty. Then you get fits of rage. You will eventually become paralyzed and die. If a rabid patient bites a doctor, priest, or nurse, they also become infected.
Today, rabies is curable, but in the late Middle Ages it was a terrible disease. Imagine a medieval superstitious priest. According to his view, the patient is simply possessed by a devil. Just sprinkle with holy water and the devil is banished. But instead of dissolving in a cloud of smoke, the patient bites the priest. And then the priest gets rabid too. Despite his 'divine protection'. There must be a very strong demonic force involved.
In the late Middle Ages, the Catholic Church conquered the last pagans. Shortly after their total seizure of power, witch burnings began. But they couldn't do anything against rabies (or the plague). Therefore, people began to believe in a mighty demonic force.
Remnants of the old pagan faith were still remembered. And the old native Europeans knew about werewolves and were-bears. Now they were bitten by a wolf and they became rabid. It was then that people began to confuse rabid wolves with werewolves. Thus arose the superstition that you became a werewolf after being bitten by another werewolf. Since there were no rabid bears, the werebears were forgotten.
Ulf means wolf, hedh means skin and nar means 'dead person' (a person that is death for the family), initiate. The old Norse Ulfhedhnar can be translated as: initiate with the wolf skin. In English they called these people: werewolves. Were means man or human.
The Ulfhedhnar were members of a secret bond: the bond of wolves. The members were priests of Óðinn. Óðinn is the god of the sky. He has one flaming eye: the sun. He is also the god of runes and magic, and the god of warriors and death. In continental Europe he was called Woden, Wodan or Vodanes.
The old native Europeans lived in a tribe. But some people didn't feel at home in the tribe. Then they became members of a secret bond. During their initiations they passed through the realm of the dead. They were dead to their tribe and family. That's why they called them nar. The Icelandic word 'nár' got the meaning of corpse. But in the old days, it was about someone who was dead to his family and tribe. The Dutch word 'nar' refers to a jester. The word 'hofnar' can be translated as 'royal jester'. He was a person at court without social status who could mock and criticize the noble men and women and even the king and queen.
If you wanted to leave your tribe, there were several options. As a woman you could devote yourself to Hal, the goddess of death. Then you belonged to the Haljaruenos. Or you devoted yourself to Freya. Then you became a Völva. Or you devoted yourself to Jörd-Nerthus. Then you became a priestess of Mother Earth. As a man you could devote yourself to Óðinn (Wodan), Thór (Donar) or Baldr. The priests of Óðinn became werewolves, the priests of Baldr werebears, and the priests of Thór were Buckriders. If you were gay or androgynous, you could become a priest of Freyr.
Transsexuality also occurred among the Germanic people. You are transsexual if you have male sex organs and you feel like a woman, or if you have female sex organs and you feel like a man. The old native Europeans did not have a problem with this. If a woman wanted to become a werewolf or a werebear, and she was suitable, she was given the same opportunities. The same was true for men who wanted to become priestess. On Iceland they made some prohibitions about cross-dressing. At some point it was not allowed for a man to dress like a woman or fro a woman to dress like a man. The fact that they made this kind of prohibitions should be considered as evidence, that this did happen in pagan times.
If you wanted to become a priest of Óðinn, you went to a kennari. 'Ken' comes from kenna. Ken-nar means: initiate and master in the secret knowledge. You can compare him to the druid among the Celts. When he took you on as an apprentice, you were initiated into magic, martial arts and runes. Rune means secret.
You were initiated after a long period as an apprentice. Naked and painted black, you went into the forest with a spear to hunt for a wolf. If you killed a wolf, you roasted the heart and ate it. You took the teeth and the skin back with you. These were used in shamanic rituals.
If you couldn't find a wolf, you were out of luck. This was regarded as a sign (omen) of rejection by Óðinn.
After killing the wolf, you got a magical potion. This put you in a deep trance. Then you were put in a leather bag and hanged in a tree in a clearing in the forest. You stayed in that tree for nine days and nine nights. In these nine days you transformed into a werewolf: a man-wolf.
The native Europeans knew a drink with which people could be initiated. Among the Hindus, such a drink is called Soma. With the ancient Persians it was made from the white Haoma. And the Germanic people called the drink Óðrerir. This translates to 'moves the mind'.
According to the myth, there was a dwarf who knew everything: Kvasir. This dwarf was killed by the dwarves Fjalar and Galar. His blood was collected in two kettles and a cauldron. The cauldron is called Óðrerir, and the kettles Són and Boðn. They mixed the blood with honey and saliva to make mead.
kvaða means: request, demand. Kvasir can be translated as: he who asks the oracle, he who demands insight. boð means: bid, offering, feast, commandment, message. And sónn means sound, special sacrifice. You could translate 'sónn' as: mantra, magical chant, chanted spell.
óðr means: madness, rapid violent movement, spirit power, ritual singing. Óðr is also used in the same way as prana in India and ga-llama in ancient Persia. And erendi means: mission, quest, issue, message, and the result of the mission. Óðr-erir can thus be translated as: quickly and violently carry out a mission and demand results.
When a priest wanted an answer to a question, he prepared Óðrerir. Kvasir (a plant) was killed and divided between a cauldron and two kettles. Kvasir was probably henbane, hemlock or mandrake. (The Dutch word for mandrake is 'al-ruin', which translates to 'all-runes', 'all secrets'.) The roots went into the large cauldron, the seeds or flowers into one kettle, and the leaves and stems into the other kettle. Then the roots were made into mead. Additives were made from the leaves and from the seeds or flowers.
Note. The leaves of Henbane contain the most active substances when the plant is in bloom. So collecting flowers and leaves goes well together. But by the time the plant bears seed, the leaves are virtually powerless.
When a priest of Óðinn wanted an answer to a question, he would isolate himself, put on his wolf skin and drink Óðrerir. As a result, he fell into a strong trance, in which he could send out his animal spirit (Hamr) as an animal. For example as a wolf, eagle, salmon or bear.
During such magical journeys, the priest comes into deep contact with his unconscious desires and complexes. That is why years of preparation are necessary to withstand such contact well. Without this preparation one will go crazy. And then one remains insane for the rest of life.
In order to accept and understand the answer to the question without prejudice, self-conquest and humility are necessary. Therefore, during the training to be a werewolf, your pride and self-importance will be broken. Then you learn to overcome yourself. Finally, you offer yourself to your Higher Self.
The bond of wolves had three grades: Skáld, Thulr, and Kennari. Before you became skáld, you were an apprentice. So there were actually four degrees. But an apprentice was not counted as a member of the bond of wolves.
You can compare these with the degrees: Bard, Ovates and Druid with the Celts. See Druid.
Julius Caesar wrote about the druids:
... But of these two orders, one is that of the Druids, the other that of the knights. The former are engaged in things sacred, conduct the public and the private sacrifices, and interpret all matters of religion. To these a large number of the young men resort for the purpose of instruction, and they [the Druids] are in great honor among them. ...
The Druids do not go to war, nor pay tribute together with the rest; they have an exemption from military service and a dispensation in all matters. Induced by such great advantages, many embrace this profession of their own accord, and [many] are sent to it by their parents and relations. They are said there to learn by heart a great number of verses; accordingly some remain in the course of training twenty years. Nor do they regard it lawful to commit these to writing, though in almost all other matters, in their public and private transactions, they use Greek characters. That practice they seem to me to have adopted for two reasons; because they neither desire their doctrines to be divulged among the mass of the people, nor those who learn, to devote themselves the less to the efforts of memory, relying on writing; since it generally occurs to most men, that, in their dependence on writing, they relax their diligence in learning thoroughly, and their employment of the memory. They wish to inculcate this as one of their leading tenets, that souls do not become extinct, but pass after death from one body to another, and they think that men by this tenet are in a great degree excited to valor, the fear of death being disregarded. They likewise discuss and impart to the youth many things respecting the stars and their motion, respecting the extent of the world and of our earth, respecting the nature of things, respecting the power and the majesty of the immortal gods.
The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar, book 6
Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn http://classics.mit.edu//Caesar/gallic.html
According to Caesar the training to become a druid was 20 years. In this time the student learned the sacred songs by heart. Nothing was written down, because that would make the people lazy. We should not believe everything Caesar wrote about foreign peoples. Much was based on 'hear-say'. But I do believe that there was a very long period of training and also that the students learned the sacred songs by heart.
I also believe, that the Germanic peoples had similar practices. I believe that priests of Óðinn were trained in a similar fashion. And that an apprentice had to learn all the sacred songs from the 'Vedda' before he/she would become a member of this bond of priests. (For the meaning of Vedda see Edda means wit) And I believe, that this bond had three degrees: Skáld, Thulr and Kennari. The skáld traveled between the tribes and sang the sacred songs around the fire at night. And he would exchange information between the tribes or negotiate about a truce or peace between warring tribes. So the skáld kept the knowledge of the religion alive among the Germanic tribes. The thulr conducted the rituals, consulted the runes, predicted the future and made sure that everything was done according to the rules of the faith. The Kennari was the wise master who taught and initiated disciples.
'Skandieren' in German and 'scanderen' in Dutch has the meaning of: 'shouting', 'proclaim (in a loud voice)'. (On the internet it is often translated as 'to chant', but that is wrong in my opinion.) Wiktionary states, that it is derived from scandere. I do not believe that. In Dutch there is also the word 'scalderen' with the same meaning as 'scanderen'. It seems likely to me, that the word 'scanderen' is derived from 'scalderen' or 'skalderen'. And that the skald the Edda songs 'Skaldeerde'. The old Edda songs had a special rhythm that was ideal for proclaiming the sacred knowledge in a loud voice. You can compare this with the rhythmic way rap-songs are proclaimed.
The word 'scalderen' in medieval Dutch can also mean 'schilderen' in modern Dutch. 'Schilderen' translates literally to 'painting' in English. But 'een schild' in Dutch translates to 'a shield' in English. The word 'scilder' in Late Middle Dutch refers to 'a shield maker' and to 'a painter'. The word 'scilderen' in Late Middle Dutch refers 'making a shield', to 'painting' and 'to stand guard' ('op schildwacht staan'). A Germanic shield was round and carefully painted with magical symbols. The Dutch word 'wapenschild' translates to 'coats of arms' and refers to heraldic symbols. The Dutch word for 'painting' is derived from 'making a shield and painting it with magical symbols'.
Jan de Vries states that 'scild' is derived from 'skel' ('splitting') and that the word 'scild' is named after splitted pieces of wood that were used to make a shield. (J. de Vries, Nederlands Etymologisch Woordenboek.)
In older Dutch the word 'scalderen' was used in stead of 'scilderen'. In Brabandsch museum voor oudheden en geschiedenis we find the text: "... tsamen met elkerbande materialen van calck, steenen, scalderen, nagelen, bert en yserwerck met dachuren ...". In this text the word 'scalderen' probably means 'painting materials'.
The making of a shield was a very important magical work for Germanic people. So perhaps making such shields was also an occupation of the old skálds. It would provide them with a source of income. To find out the importance of the magic involved in making such a shield search on 'shamanic shield' of 'sacred shield'.
Peculiar is the fact that the word 'scalderen' does not exist in 'de dikke van dale' (the standard dictionary of Dutch) and not in 'Nederlands Etymologisch Woordenboek' of Jan de Vries. Google can only find very few webpages with this word. But I remember, that I used that word around 1969 and that is was quite common in Rotterdam around that time. It could be a merged word, derived from 'scanderen' and 'schelden' (to scold).
skall in Old Icelandic seems related to the Dutch word 'schelden' (to scold), which is derived from 'scelden' (to rebuke, to reproach), 'sceldan' (to shout something to others), 'skelda' (to mock, to declare openly). Related to this are the Dutch words 'schallen' (to resound very loudly) and 'schal' (strong sound) 'schallen' is derived from 'schal' and an earlier form of 'schal' was 'scal', according to 'Nederlands Etymologisch Woordenboek' of Jan de Vries. It seems likely to me that 'scal-deren' meant 'singing the old sacred songs in a very loud voice' and that is what the skálds did. And that 'scal-deren' or 'scalden' is an ancient form of rapping. To illustrate this, take a look at the next verse from the Völuspá. There is a certain rhythm in this verse. Imagine yourself sitting around a fire with your siblings. And a skáld is standing in the light of the fire and he scalded a sacred song. Many young people today learn pop songs by heart without any difficulty. I remember most of the lyrics of pop songs from the 1970's in 2023. Most likely the young people learned the sacred songs simply by listening to a skáld and repeating it.
In the Völuspá we read:
The last line gives evidence, that this story is ancient. The old Germanic peoples probably came from tribal people that lived on horseback in Central Asia. No grass means no horses. See: Where did Germanic peoples come from.
I could not find webpages that see a relationship between the function of the skáld and 'to scold', 'skall', 'schelden' and 'scelden'. It seems likely to me, that one of the functions of a skáld would be to reproach people openly when they violated the customs of the community.
In the Middle Ages there was a similar degree system in the guilds, the trade unions of that time. When you entered puberty as a boy, you went to a master. This one taught you a trade. If you were motivated enough, the master took you on as an apprentice. For years you were less than that master's servant. You had fewer rights, less pay and you had to work harder. But at the end of your apprenticeship you became a journeyman. Then you could work independently and earn your living independently. As an apprentice you didn't have time for a relationship with a woman. And women weren't interested in apprentices because they weren't earning anything yet. So the moment you became a journeyman, you were a free journeyman. Such men were very desirable. They knew a trade and could support a woman. Moreover, they had hardly any obligations. Free journeyman had the women to choose, even if they were quite ugly. Most journeymen married quickly. It was considered strange if a 30-year-old journeyman was not yet married. Sometimes people were urged by the guild brothers to get married, in order to prevent social unrest (fear of sexual adventures with married women).
The Dutch word for 'journeyman' is 'gezel'. The old word for a young unmarried man was vrijgezel. This old word refers to late medieval times. When an apprentice became a 'gezel' he was free and excellent marriage material.
After working for years as a journeyman, some reached a very high standard in their work. Then they were recognized as masters by the other guild brothers. Then students could be hired and trained. These students could work for free, so that they earned more. As a result, the master could still live in reasonable wealth even at an advanced age.
The werebears were the priests of Baldr. In Old Norse they were called Bersekr. Baldr is the son of Óðinn in mythology. The werebears were a split from the werewolves.
An interesting page about Bersekrs.
To become a werebear, you first had to kill a bear, drink its warm blood and eat its heart. Then you got the heart of a bear. You took the skin and a claw for shamanic rituals.
After killing the bear you were put on the bear skin. You had to stand on the bearskin and not move or scream. Then you were pelted with stones, sticks and excrement by the Bersekrs. You had to let this come over you unmoved. If you passed, you got a piece of mistletoe the size of your thumb. By chewing this you went into a deep trance. Then you were wrapped in your bearskin and lowered into a burial mound. You stayed in the hill for nine days and nine nights. On the morning of the tenth day you were released from the burial mound and you were a werebear.
According to obscure sources the piece of mistletoe was kept under an altar stone for a few days. (Could be three or nine days.) Probably the mistletoe changed during that time. Maybe it fermented a bit, maybe chemicals in the mistletoe changed. Or perhaps a fungus grew on the mistletoe. If these sources are right, then the magical potency developed by keeping it under the right circumstances.
Disclaimer: I strongly advice AGAINST chewing mistletoe. It will probably kill you or cause massive damage to your liver.
The werewolves provided the religious education and magic. The werebears were the healers.
Among the farmers there was a strong cult devoted to Thor. Thor is the god of the goats. When he drives his chariot over the clouds, it thunders on earth. When he throws his battle hammer at the ice giants, we see lightning.
The priests of Thor were initiated in a great pit on a high hill. They were symbolically struck on the head with the battle hammer. A second blow brought you back to life.
The Dutch language has an ancient word moordkuil. Usually this is explained as a pit were robbers were killed. I do not believe that this is the right explanation. Robbers were hanged. The historical 'moordkuilen' in the Netherlands are elaborate pits. Much to much work for the execution of robbers. F.E. Farwerck states, that these pits were used for initiations. (F.E.Farwerck, Noordeuropese mysteriën en hun sporen tot heden, p. 364.)
The use of the word 'moordkuil' in Dutch is very rare. Usually it is only used in one saying: "Maak van je hart geen moordkuil'. The literal translation would be: "Do not make a murder-pit from your heart", but that would be nonsense in English. A better translation would be: "Do not make a vault with secrets of your heart", "Speak out about what is bothering you". So this very ancient Dutch saying uses the word 'moordkuil' as a place with closely guarded secrets, a place were things were done which had to be kept secret. Like a place were people were initiated in a brotherhood or in a Masonry. And that is exactly what Farwerck stated.
I am not aware of any old texts that describe what was happening in such a 'moordkuil'. I believe that it was a place were an apprentice was initiated to become a journeyman. Perhaps the apprentice had to kneel down in the 'murder-pit' and then was knocked on the head with a hammer or club. Not very hard, there was no intention of killing or wounding the initiant. It was a symbolic knock. Then the initiant was knocked a second time and was resurrected. This ritual is similar to practices around Thór (Donar).
I have no clue how long the initiant stayed in the pit. Perhaps only a few minutes, perhaps days. Perhaps he was wrapped in cloth and covered with branches and then left for 24 hours or for several days. There are similar rites among spiritual groups, were one digs a hole in the earth and one stays in it for hours or much longer.
Imagine that you are the initiant. You have heard the word 'murder-pit' and you have heard, that the brotherhood will do some things with you. It will frighten you. Then you are taken up a hill and you have to take place in the murder-pit. Then the leader of the rite comes with as club or hammer and ... Such a rite will make a lasting impression.
Farwerck (Noordeuropese mysteriën en hun sporen tot heden) writes on page 427:
... One one of these feasts, the spring-feast, new journeymen were accepted. This is like the initiation of young men in the bond of warriors, which also happened in the spring. We do not have much literature about these initiation rites, but we can deduce that death and resurrection was an important part, as we see in initiation rites to this day. In several cases the acceptance as journeyman was done by submersion in water, which can be seen as death and rebirth. But there are also similar rites known. With the guilt of coopers the apprentice was put in the hide of an donkey or a horse and he came out of it as a journeyman. Sometime (in simplified form) the apprentice was put under a bench and re-appeared as a journeyman. The other journeymen would beat him like it was done with the Bersekrs. They said while doing that: "A boy crawls under, a journeyman appears." ...
Unfortunately Farwerck did not supply the source of this statement.
When the farmers in Limburg (in the south of the Netherlands) ran into distress and were forced to work in the coal mines, a parody of the old faith in Thór revived. They called themselves Buckriders.
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When you put a 'V' before the word Edda, you get Vedda or Veda.
Vedda or Wedda is related to the Dutch word 'weten' and the Germand word 'wissen' (to know) and the English word 'Wit'
The Edda, the Rig Veda en the Zend Avesta have the same origin.
According to DNA research of David Reich et al. the Germanic people came from Central Asia from the Yamnaya culture.
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This is a description of a model of the cosmos. A new cosmology. This model has nine three-dimensional layers. Several forces connect these layers through the fourth dimension.
Most people believe, that they can see the physical world, but that is not possible. Our senses perceive an abstraction of the physical word. What we 'see' is a mental image of the world.
According to the Gaia hypothesis, the earth is a living being. Anima Mundi is the world soul, who gives life to the earth.
We can compare individual people with individual nerve cells in the human body. And humanity as the nervous system of Mother Earth.
Questions: Does Anima Mundi have self-awareness? Does humanity collectively form a self-conscious being? Do we as humanity enable the self-awareness of Anima Mundi?
You can solve problems together with others!
Don't be a green frog that lets itself boil because it doesn't dare to jump out of its comfort zone. Jump out of your pan and become a fully human!
Materialism is the attachment to possessions, status or wealth. Spiritual materialism is the attachment to spiritual status, attachment to a particular belief. The idea that you are higher because you have a certain faith, or follow a certain spiritual teaching, is an expression of spiritual materialism.
Spiritual materialism is also the use of spiritual means to achieve selfish earthly goals.
Today (2018) there are many non-physical epidemics. One epidemic of madness and/or idiocy is not over and the next is already on its way.
Non-physical epidemics arise from lack of:
There is nothing wrong with the world
The world is changing
How do you save yourself?
to know, recognize | to taste (food or drink) | to feel, perceive | to show, bear witness of | to teach one a thing, to make one do a thing
request, claim, demand
bid, offer | banquet, wedding feast | bidding, order, commandment | message
mind, feeling | song, poetry | mad, frantic | furious, vehement, eager
errand, message, mission, business | breath (ørendi)
noise | mocking, derision
year | plenty | name of a Rune | oar | first beginning | anciently, of yore | early
a heavy (swelling) wave, a roller | time, age | old cycle
there, at that place
who, which, what | am, is
to warn, caution | to give (one) a foreboding of | wares
sand | the sea shore
sea | seen
balcony | to chill, cool
jörð (the earth, Mother Earth)
never | at any time | not
gap, empty space | ;shouting, crying
deception | joking
but, and, if, when
grass, herbage, herb
each, every one | whosoever | nowhere | by no means, not at all